What is Distillation?
Distillation is a physical process used to separate the solvent from a solute based upon differences in boiling point.
The process of distillation involves the evaporation and condensation of a liquid.
For example, in sea water there is a large difference between the boiling points of the dissolved salts (the solute) and the water (the solvent). Pure water can be obtained from sea water by the process of distillation. The sea water is evaporated leaving the salt behind and the water is recovered by condensation.
Chemical Distillation apparatus
1. Electric heating mantle
3. Heating Vessel
4. Liebig condenser
5. Water outlet
6. Water inlet
7. Conical flask
The steps in the process of distillation
The mixture is heated.(1-2)
The ingredient with the lowest boiling point evaporates. (3)
The hot vapor travels through the Liebig condenser where it is condenses.(4)
Continually running water through the condenser keeps it cool. (5 water outlet and 6 water inlet)
The distillate is then collected.(7-8)
Questions about distillation
Distillation is used to separate mixtures on the basis of what physical property?
Where does evaporation take place?
Where does condensation take place?
What is the liquid that leaves the condenser called?
Why are glass beads added to the heating vessel?
Why is it best to have the water inlet at point 6 rather than point 5?
What are some risks associated with the process of distillation?
How can these risks be minimized?