Basic chemistry help for students and teachers

 

Interactive Chemistry Worksheets for Students

 

Periodic table

Naming compounds

Basic formula

Simple compounds

Ionic compounds 1

Ionic compounds 2

Chemical suffixes

Old chemical names

Hydrocarbons - Alkanes

Alkanes, alkenes & alkynes

Alkanols to alkanoic acids

 

Common compounds

Common formula quiz

Acids, bases and salts

Covalent compounds

Printable worksheets
 

 

MODELS OF THE ATOM - SUMMARY

Scientists

Model

Description

Evidence

 

2

1

The atom is the smallest particle of an element.

The atom is a solid, indestructible unit.

Atoms of different elements have different masses.

Law of Constant Proportions. (% mass composition)

Law of Multiple Proportions. E.g. Two compounds of nitrogen oxide. The ratio of oxygen between both compounds is 2:3.

J. Dalton

The Billiard Ball model (1808)

 

 

 

3

4

The ‘pudding’ is the positive material of an atom.

The embedded ‘raisins’ are negative electrons.

Cathode rays (negative particles or electrons)

Canal rays (positive particles with large masses)

J. J. Thomson

The Plum Pudding model (1903)

 

 

 

5

6

The mass and positive charge of an atom is concentrated in a small core called the nucleus.

Negative electrons orbit the nucleus.

The atom is mostly made up of empty space.
(Ratio of nucleus diameter to outer electron orbit = 1 : 50,000)

The scattering of alpha particles through thin gold foil.

A small percentage of particles were deflected at large angles, some even returning. ‘it is like a cannonball rebounding off a piece of paper’

Ernest Rutherford

The Nuclear model (1911)

Protons & later neutrons are identified.

 

 

8

7

Electrons are arranged around the nucleus in discrete energy levels or shells.

Explains emission spectra (flame test)

Explains patterns in the successive ionisation energies of an element.

Neils Bohr

The Shell model (1923)

 

 

 

10

s-orbital

9
p-orbitals

Electrons exist in orbitals. i.e. an area surrounding the nucleus that has a 90% probability of  containing an electron.

Better explains anomalies in successive ionisation energies and emission spectra.
E.g. double yellow lines for sodium.

 

11
d-orbitals

Orbitals differ in shape(s, p, d, & f orbitals) and size(dependent upon energy level).

No orbital may contain more than two electrons.
The electrons in an orbital spin in opposite directions.

 

Various Scientists
Heisenburg,
Schrodinger,
de Broglie, Pauli

The Quantum model (1935)