Basic chemistry help for students and teachers

 

Interactive Chemistry Worksheets for Students

 

Periodic table

Naming compounds

Basic formula

Simple compounds

Ionic compounds 1

Ionic compounds 2

Chemical suffixes

Old chemical names

Hydrocarbons - Alkanes

Alkanes, alkenes & alkynes

Alkanols to alkanoic acids

 

Common compounds

Common formula quiz

Acids, bases and salts

Covalent compounds

Printable worksheets
 

 

Acids and Base Reactions - Neutralization

What is an acid?

Acids are substances that taste sour. eg. citric acid. They turn blue litmus paper pink. There are many different types of acids and most are too corrosive to taste. The word corrosive means it will eat away.

Acids always produce salts when they react with chemical substances. 

Acid Chemical formula Salt produced Ion
Hydrochloric acid HCl chloride salt Cl-
Nitric acid HNO3 nitrate salt NO3-
Sulfuric acid H2SO4 sulfate salt SO42-
Acetic acid CH3COOH acetate salt CH3COO-
Phosphoric acid H3PO4 phosphate salt PO43-

Acids produce hydrogen or H+ ions in solution.

 

What is a base?

Bases are substances that taste bitter. eg. Bi-carb of soda. They turn pink litmus paper blue. Soluble bases produce alkali solutions. These solutions are caustic and will burn or corrode organic matter.

Common bases include metal hydroxides, metal oxides and ammonia.

Base Chemical formula
Sodium hydroxide NaOH
Potassium hydroxide KOH
Ammonia NH3
Calcium oxide CaO
Magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH)2
Sodium oxide Na2O

Bases produce hydroxide or OH- ions in solution.

 

What is an alkali?

An alkali is a strong soluble base. All of the Group I metals or alkali metals produce alkali solutions on reaction with water. eg. lithium hydroxide LiOH, sodium hydroxide NaOH and potassium hydroxide KOH.

Alkali solutions are caustic in nature and should be handled with care. Dilute alkali solutions are slippery to touch.

 

What is a neutralization reaction?

Acids and bases react with each other to produce salt and water.

This type of chemical reaction is called a neutralization reaction.

The general equation for a neutralization reaction

Acid + Base Salt + Water

A common neutralization reaction carried out in high school is the reaction of hydrochloric acid with sodium hydroxide.

Hydrochloric acid + sodium hydroxide Sodium chloride + Water

HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O

All neutralization reactions are also exothermic meaning heat is given off. Hydrogen ions produced from the acid react with hydroxide ions produced from the base. Energy is released as new chemical bonds are formed as water is produced.

Hydrogen ion + hydroxide ion water

H+(aq)+ OH-(aq) H2O(l)

 

Chemical Formula for Common Acids, Alkalis and Bases

Click on the chemical name to show the chemical formula of the acid or base.

Note: An alkali is a soluble base and is caustic in nature.

 

The chemical formula for a range of acids and bases
HCl
Hydrochloric acid
H2SO4
Sulfuric acid
HNO3
Nitric acid
CH3COOH
Acetic acid
Acids
HBr
Hydrobromic acid
HF
Hydrofluoric acid
H2CO3
Carbonic acid
H3PO4
Phosphoric acid
Acids
NaOH
Sodium hydroxide
KOH
Potassium hydroxide
LiOH
Lithium hydroxide
NH3
Ammonia
Alkalis
Na2O
Sodium oxide
K2O
Potassium oxide
Li2O
Lithium hydroxide
Na2CO3
Sodium carbonate
Alkalis
Mg(OH)2
Magnesium hydroxide
Al(OH)3
Aluminum hydroxide
CuO
Copper(II) oxide
NiO
Nickel(II) oxide
Bases

 

Identification of Salts

Can you identify the salt produced from each acid base combination?

Click on the salt link to show or hide the chemical name.

 

Salts produced from acid base reactions
Sodium hydroxide
Potassium hydroxide
Magnesium hydroxide
Calcium oxide
 
sodium chloride
salt?
potassium chloride
salt?
magnesium chloride
salt?
calcium chloride
salt?
Hydrochloric acid
sodium nitrate
salt?
potassium nitrate
salt?
magnesium nitrate
salt?
calcium nitrate
salt?
Nitric acid
sodium acetate
salt?
potassium acetate
salt?
magnesium acetate
salt?
calcium acetate
salt?
Acetic acid
sodium sulfate
salt?
potassium sulfate
salt?
magnesium sulfate
salt?
calcium sulfate
salt?
Sulfuric acid
sodium phosphate
salt?
potassium phosphate
salt?
magnesium phosphate
salt?
calcium phosphate
salt?
Phosphoric acid

 

Examples of neutralisation reactions

Acids reacting with metal hydroxide bases

1. Sulfuric acid + sodium hydroxide sodium sulfate + water

H2SO4 + 2NaOH Na2SO4 + H2O

2. Nitric acid + potassium hydroxide potassium nitrate + water

HNO3 + KOH KNO3 + H2O

3. Sodium hydroxide + nitric acid sodium nitrate + water

NaOH + HNO3 NaNO3 + H2O

4. Hydrochloric acid + magnesium hydroxide magnesium chloride + water

2HCl + Mg(OH)2 MgCl2 + 2H2O

5. Potassium hydroxide + acetic acid potassium acetate + water

KOH + CH3COOH CH3COOK + H2O

 

Acids reacting with metal oxide bases

1. Sodium oxide + nitric acid sodium nitrate + water

Na2O + 2HNO3 2NaNO3 + H2O

2. Hydrochloric acid + calcium oxide calcium chloride + water

2HCl + CaO CaCl2 + H2O

3. Potassium oxide + phosphoric acid potassium phosphate + water

3K2O + 2H3PO4 2K3PO4 + 3H2O

4. Aluminum oxide + hydrochloric acid aluminum chloride + water

Al2O3 + 6HCl 2AlCl3 + 3H2O

5. Barium oxide + hydrochloric acid barium chloride + water

BaO + 2HCl BaCl2 + 2H2O

 

Neutralisation Equation Worksheets

Identification of salts from a variety of acid reactions

Balancing of neutralization reactions