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Chemical formula for table sugar

sugar sugar types


A molecule of sucrose

Glucose and fructose are monosaccharide sugars. A monosaccharide is the smallest unit of sugar, mono meaning 1.

Sucrose is commonly called table sugar and is a disaccharide. A disaccharide is a sugar that is made up of two sugar units, di meaning 2.

Sucrose is produced as glucose and fructose are joined together by a condensation reaction. In the process a water molecule is eliminated. See the following equation.

C6H12O6 + C6H12O6 => C12H22O11 + H2O

glucose   + fructose => sucrose + water

Hint: This is an easy way to remember the chemical formula for sucrose. 2 x C6H12O6 - H2O = C12H22O11

The molecular formula for sucrose is C12H22O11



Chemical Formula for Sugars

Sugars are a white crystalline group of soluble carbohydrates that are sweet tasting in nature. These sugar molecules include glucose, sucrose, lactose, fructose, maltose, lactose and galactose. Sugar molecules are classified as monosaccharides or disaccharides. The following table lists the common sugar molecules are their chemical formula.


 Type of sugar (mono =1 or di =2 sugar units)

 Chemical formula of sugar











 Disaccharide (glucose + galactose)



 Disaccharide (glucose + fructose)



 Disaccharide (glucose + glucose)


The monosaccharides glucose, galactose and fructose all have the same molecular formula but they vary in their molecular structure.

The three common disaccharides lactose, sucrose and maltose also have the same molecular formula but differ in their structural formula

Lactose is also known as ‘milk sugar’ because it is primarily found in dairy products. Lactose intolerance is a genetic disorder which affects many people who lack the enzyme necessary to break down lactose into glucose and galactose. This prevents lactose being absorbed by the body.

Sucrose is obtained from sugar cane and sugar beet and is commonly called table sugar.

Glucose Song